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Legal System in Portugal

Table of Contents

  1. The Portuguese legal and political system

1.1 Introduction

1.3 Political system

  1. Legislation

2.1 Sources of Law and system’ structure

2.2 Interpretation of statutes – legal hermeneutics

2.3 Most relevant codes

2.4 Portuguese law in English

Political System

Telecommunications Law

National mail law

Online company establishing act

Criminal Law

Access to Administrative Documents

Asylum and Refugees

Banking and Finance

Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP)

International Judicial Cooperation

Mental Health

Ombudsman

Passports

  1. Court system

3.1 Jurisdictional organization

3.2 Territorial organization

3.3 Specialized courts

3.4 National Courts Judgements database

  1. Law schools and legal scholarship

4.1 Law schools

4.2 Legal education in Portugal

4.3 Advanced legal education in Portugal – English taught programmes

4.4 Legal Science Research in Portugal

4.4.1 The Portuguese system for research in Legal Science

4.4.2 National competitive funding and Research units assessment

4.4.2.1 Research assessment exercise 2007

4.4.2.1 Research assessment exercise 2013

  1. Portuguese law related publications

5.1 Law Reviews without peer review

5.2 Law Reviews with peer review

5.3 Major Legal publishers

5.4 Treatises and textbooks by subject

5.5 Other sources of information about the Portuguese legal system (in English)

References

 

1. The Portuguese legal and political system

1.1 Introduction

Portugal became independent in 1143 and is one of the oldest nations in Europe. Except for a brief period of 80 years, between 1580 and 1640 (when Portugal and Spain were united under the same crown) Portugal has been sovereign over the same European territory for several centuries. Moreover, the Atlantic expansion between the 14 th and the 17 th century allowed Portugal to develop and maintain a colonial empire reaching as far as Africa (Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, Guinea and S. Tome and Prince) South America (Brazil), Asia (possession in India and China) and even to the Pacific Ocean (East Timor). At the same time trade with the local populations was developed and Portugal settled a huge number of commercial outposts throughout the world.

Portugal
Portugal

There is a tradition of legal stability in the Portuguese legal system. Although there have been significant political changes over the centuries, the truth is that the core of the legal system seems to be able to outlive the political regime who enacted them. Portuguese legal system is considered to be a classic civil law system, with strong German and Italian influence.

The Portuguese legal system started to develop in the 13 th century with the laws enacted by King Afonso II in 1211, and later compiled in Kingdom’s Ordinations of D. Duarte (1433-1438?). These documents were the base for the codification of Ordenações Afonsinas in 1446 that were in force until 1521, when they were replaced by Ordenações Manuelinas . Altogether, some of the laws included in the first Portuguese code ( Ordenações Afonsinas ) were in force for about 300 years, between 1211 and 1521. The second code of Portuguese legislation ( Ordenações Manuelinas ) was in force between 1521 and 1595 , when Ordenações Filipinas were enacted; the later were, although with significant changes, in force until the 19 th century, when the first modern civil codification, Código de Seabrawas enacted (1867). This code was in force until 1967, when the present Civil Code entered into force.

Along with substantive law, Portuguese civil procedural law claims an equally long tradition. The first rules of judicial organization date back to 13 th century by the hand of King Afonso II; the Supreme Tribunal of the Court was established in this period and, after some changes in its name, became the modern Supreme Court of Justice. Some key instruments of Civil Procedural law in Portugal include the Ordinance of 1582, restructuring procedural law, the Law of the 20 th of August of 1774, who restructured the judiciary organization and procedural law, and the Laws 22, 23 and 24 of 1832, drafted by Mouzinho da Silveira , that operated a complete reform of the Portuguese judiciary and Civil procedure that last, although with numerous changes and amendments, until the 22 nd of September 1926, when all of it was replaced by the  Decreto n.º 12353. Previous Portuguese civil procedural law had relied, until then, on a private conception of the procedural affaire; the main principle governing all the proceedings was the Principle of the party initiative: the parties were in charge of driving the courts action and carrying all proof for the judge to assess and finally rule. The magistrate was mainly a viewer, not an actor. The 1926 reform changed all this and paved the way for a Portuguese Code of Civil Procedure, enacted in 1939. This Code was replaced in 1961, amended for the first time in 1967, the second time in 1969, then 1970, 1974, 1975, five times in 1976, twice in 1977, once in 1978, twice in 1979, twice in 1980, once in 1982, twice in 1985, twice again in 1986, once in 1988 and 1990, once in 1991, once in 1993, once in 1994, twice in 1995, again in 1996, three times in 1998, once in 1999, once in 2000, twice in 2001, once in 2002, three times in 2003, once in 2004, four times in 2006, twice in 2007, five times in 2008, once in 2009, twice in 2010 and once (until October) in 2011.  Fifty seven amendments in fifty years, nearly half of it in the last ten years!!!

It is unclear the relationship between these amendments and the dramatic situation of the Portuguese Courts. Portuguese judiciary is usually and consistently considered to be quite inefficient, both by public opinion, legal professionals, stakeholders and international organizations. A clear evidence of such inefficiency is the length of cases in Portuguese Courts: the average time of enforcement proceedings was 32 months in 2005 and increased to 43 months in 2010, whereas for civil proceedings the average time of a case was 28 months in 2005 and decreased to 20 months in 2010. Criminal justice is in no better shape: a criminal case is expected to end after 10 months – this statistics are from the first instance only: no appeals are considered.

1.3 Political system

T he  Constitution of the Portuguese Republic of 1976  was approved after the revolution of the 25 th  April 1974. This revolution put an end to the authoritarian dictatorship of the Estado Novo, which had risen with the approval of the Constitution of 1933. It has undergone seven amendments in 1982, 1989, 1992, 1997, 2004, and 2005. With 296 articles, it is one of the longest Constitutions in the World. It is the sixth Constitution in the Portuguese history and the third Republican one.

 

The 1976 Constitution establishes a democratic republican form of government under the rule of law and a comprehensive system of fundamental rights and freedoms. Initially very strongly socialist-oriented, later amendments to the Constitution made it more liberal. The Portuguese Constitution is further open to international law and committed to the European Union objectives.

The President of the Republic, the Assembly of the Republic, the Government and the Courts are the bodies which exercise sovereign power. The fashion by which the Constitution shapes the inter-relations among these bodies results in a semi-presidential regime.

The   President of the Republic   shall represent the Portuguese Republic, shall guarantee national independence, the unity of the state and the proper functioning of the democratic institutions, and shall be ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President of the Republic is elected for five years by the universal, direct, secret suffrage of all Portuguese citizens. Its competences are essentially political.

The   Assembly of the Republic   has a minimum of one hundred and eighty and a maximum of two hundred and thirty Members (its present composition) and represents all Portuguese citizens. Members are elected for plurinominal constituencies geographically defined by law in proportion to the number of citizens registered to vote therein. Each legislature lasts for four legislative sessions. All the discussions held in the Assembly are available in the   Diário da Assembleia da República . The Assembly of the Republic has political, legislative and oversight competences, as well as the competence to amend the Constitution.

 

T he   Government   is the body which conducts the country’s general policy and the supreme authority in the Public Administration. It is composed of the Prime Minister, Ministers and Secretaries and Under Secretaries of State. The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister after consulting the parties with seats in Assembly of the Republic and in the light of the electoral results for such Assembly. The remaining members of the Government are appointed by the President of the Republic upon a proposal from the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is therefore responsible to the President of the Republic and, within the ambit of the Government’s political responsibility, to the Assembly of the Republic. The Government has broad political, legislative and administrative competences.

 

2. Legislation

2.1 Sources of Law and system’ structure

Today, Portuguese legal order includes: Constitutional laws, which comprehend the Portuguese Constitution itself, miscellaneous constitutional laws and laws amending it, the principles of international law, international agreements and the provisions of the treaties that govern the European Union and the acts issued by its institutions; Ordinary laws, which comprise laws enacted by Parliament, decree laws issued by the Government, and regional legislative decrees adopted by the Legislative Assemblies of the Autonomous Regions of the Azores and Madeira; Instruments with effect equivalent to that of laws, such as acts approving international conventions, treaties or agreements, generally binding decisions of the Constitutional Court declaring measures to be unconstitutional or illegal, collectivelabour agreements and other collective instruments regulating labour relations; Regulations, or legislative instruments of lower status than laws, whose purpose is to supplement laws and fill out the details so that they can be applied or implemented. These comprise regulatory decrees, regulations, decrees, regional regulatory decrees, decisions, rules, ministerial orders, executive rulings, and municipal orders and regulations.

The backbone of the Portuguese substantive law is the Portuguese Civil Code. This is especially true for Private law, but, to some extent, that is the case of Public law as well. Most of the basic legal concepts upon which the system is build are laid there. Such is the case of the enumeration of the sources of law: articles 1 to 5 are dedicated to this subject.

The system gives clear supremacy to the law, defined in clear and narrow terms: law is a generic rule enacted by any organ with legislative powers. Those bodies are, according to the Portuguese Constitution, the Parliament (AR – Assembleia da República ), the Government, the regional Assemblies in Azores and Madeira regions and, to some extent, local assemblies and councils. In brief, law in this sense, may be designated as legislation. Courts decisions are not a source of law. The one clear exception is the case of the decisions of the Constitutional Court. The custom is not an immediate source of law. It is only accepted as an ancillary source and only when legislation itself admits it. Equity may only be used when the legislation so determines.

2.2 Interpretation of statutes – legal hermeneutics

Legal interpretation aims to clarify the range of the factual situations and of the consequences included. Legal interpretation uses several elements. The first is the literal or grammatical element, i.e., the text of the law. The second element is the systematic element, i.e., the place, in a given legal order, where the rule is included; this element is particularly useful to broaden or narrow the range of the rule: if a rule determines that a contract must be concluded in writting and this rule is included in a law applying to the lease contract, one cannot conclude that all contracts must be conclude in writing; the command shall apply only to the foreseen contracts. The third element is the teleological one, which is used to correct the results of the application of the previous elements in light of the aims and goals of the rule and of its very existence. There is a fourth element, the historical, that places the law in the context of the moment when it was written, through the readings of any ancillary or preparatory materials.

Diagram 1 – Legal hermeneutics

Legal interpretation is also used to answer legal omissions. The result is that legal interpretation may be analogical or extensive. The first happens when a general rule is applied to a similar uncovered factual situation and the second when a special rule is applied to a similar uncovered factual situation. Some rules however, such as some criminal rules, must be subject of restrictive interpretation, thus preventing the two previously described situations. Analogical and extensive interpretation deal with three concepts: legal omission, generic rule and special rule. Legal omission happens when the law does not foresee a given factual situation. In such a situation, the interpreter may search for a general rule with a similar factual description and apply it analogically. General rules, however, may be limited in scope by a special rule, i. e., when a small change in the facts will determine a different solution. In such case, if the facts are closer to the description in this special rule, then the interpreter may apply the special rule by extensive interpretation.

2.3 Most relevant codes

2.4 Portuguese law in English

There are some Portuguese laws and codes available online in English:

2.4.1 Political System

 

The Portuguese Constitution in English
Assembly of the Republic Electoral Law
Law governing Political Parties
Law governing the Exercise of the Right of Petition
Law governing the Organisation and Modus Operandi of the Departments and Services of the AR
Law of the Constitutional Court
Law on the Order of Precedence of the Protocol of the Portuguese State
Law regulating the monitoring of the involvement of Portuguese military contingents abroad by the Assembly of the Republic
Legal Regime governing Incompatibilities and Disqualifications of Political Officeholders and Senior Public Officeholders
Legal Regime governing Parliamentary Inquiries
Legal Regime governing Referenda
Legislative Initiative by Citizens
Member of the Assembly of the Republic’s Special Identity Card
Monitoring, assessment and pronouncement by the Assembleia da República within the scope of the process of constructing the European Union
Rules of Procedure of the Assembly of the Republic
Statute governing the Right of Opposition
Statute of Members of Parliament
The Parliamentary Staff Regulations

 

2.4.2 Telecommunications Law

Advertising of audiotext services

Authorises the broadcasting of parliamentary proceedings on the public and private cable TV networks, making it  available via digital terrestrial television

Broadcasting Law (Access to and pursuit of the radio broadcasting activity on national territory)

Law on the protection of personal data

Parliament Channel via digital terrestrial television

Processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector

Regime of simplified free access and exercise of service activities within the national territory

Statutes of Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, S.A.

Strategic guidelines for the development and promotion of investment on next generation networks

2.4.3 National mail law

Postal Law

Regulation of the public postal service

Statute of the postage stamp

2.4.4 Online company establishing act

2.4.5 Criminal Law

Anti-Drug Legislation

Approving the structure and organisation of the Polícia Judiciária

Code of Criminal Procedure

Cybercrime Law

Enforcement of measures involving deprivation of liberty

Establishing preventive and repressive measures against money laundering and terrorist financing, and transposing EC directives (1)

Establishing preventive and repressive measures against money laundering and terrorist financing, and transposing EC directives (2)

Establishing preventive and repressive measures against money laundering and terrorist financing, and transposing EC directives (3)

Governing the enforcement of measures on the protection of witnesses in criminal proceedings

International judicial cooperation in criminal matters

Legal regime of the European arrest warrant

Measures for fighting corruption and economic and financial crime

Setting up an Asset Recovery Office (ARO) under the Criminal Police

To make provision as to covert operations undertaken for the purposes of crime prevention and criminal investigation

2.4.6 Access to Administrative Documents

Access to administrative documents (1st version)

Access to Administrative Documents (2nd version)

Access to Administrative Documents (3rd version)

2.4.7 Asylum and Refugees

Establishes the conditions and procedures for granting asylum or subsidiary protection and the status of asylum, refugee and subsidiary protection to applicants

New legal framework in matters regarding asylum and refugees – Asylum and Refugees

2.4.8 Banking and Finance

Court for intellectual property and the court for competition, regulation and supervision

Legal framework of Credit Institutions and Financial Companies

Organic Law of the Banco de Portugal

Securities Code

2.4.9 Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP)

Declaration and Statutes of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries

2.4.10 International Judicial Cooperation

National legislation implementing the Eurojust Decision

2.4.11 Mental Health

Mental Health Act

2.4.12 Ombudsman

Statute of the Ombudsman

2.4.13 Passports

Approves the new legal regime for granting and issuing passports

3. Court system

Portuguese judiciary system includes several courts and jurisdictions: the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Justice and the judicial courts of first and second instance, the Supreme Administrative Court and the other administrative and fiscal courts and the Court of Auditors. The judicial courts are common courts for civil matters and they exercise jurisdiction in all areas that are not attributed to other judicial jurisdictions [13] .

3.1 Jurisdictional organization

The Portuguese court system is divided into two main fields of jurisdiction: judicial and administrative. The first covers all areas of Private law plus Criminal law. The second covers all aspects of Administrative and taxation law. Both jurisdictions have three levels. There is a third high level jurisdiction called the Constitutional Court.

 

 

3.2 Territorial organization

National territory is divided into 5 judicial sections and 39 judicial circuits. The Supreme Court of Justice, the Constitutional Court and The Supreme Administrative Court have jurisdiction over the whole territory

3.3 Specialized courts

Within the structure of the judicial courts (generic jurisdiction), there are a number of specialized courts, at the level of the first instance: criminal instruction, family, children, labour, commerce, intellectual property, competition, regulation and supervision, maritime and the execution of sentences.

3.4 National Courts Judgements database

 

Constitutional Court

Supreme Court of Justice

Court of Appeal Lisboa

Court of Appeal Coimbra

Court of Appeal Guimarães

Court of Appeal Évora

Court of Appeal Porto

Supreme Administrative Court

Central Administrative North

Central Administrative South

Court of Auditors

4. Law schools and legal scholarship

4.1 Law schools

 

4.2 Legal education in Portugal

Legal higher education in Portugal is divided in three stages: the first cycle of studies, called Licenciatura, is accessible to students after completion of 12 years of study. It last for 4 years, corresponding to 240 ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) and gives access to internships leading for most legal professions. This degree is equivalent to level 6 of the European Qualifications Framework.

The second cycle of studies is Mestrado . It is accessible to holders of Licenciatura or equivalent and has a length of two years (120 ECTS); it usually requires the presentation, in writing and viva voce, of a dissertation and is equivalent to level 7 of the European Qualifications Framework.

The third cycle of studies is Doutoramento . It is accessible to holders of Mestrado and has a duration of no less than three years or 180 ECTS. It requires the presentation, in writing and viva voce, of a dissertation. It corresponds to level 8 of the European Qualifications Framework.

All Law Schools in Portugal deliver the first two cycles of legal higher education in Portugal. The third cycle is not available in all of them. Tuition in Portugal is in Portuguese and quite often the written assignments and dissertations, when applicable, must be delivered in Portuguese.

4.3 Advanced legal education in Portugal – English taught programmes

Some Portuguese Law Schools and Faculties have introduced, in the last years, taught programmes in English. This is the case of University Católica LLM , Minho University School of Law LLM and IJP – University Portucalense LLM and Joint European PhD (under accreditation, at the time of publishing of this article, in Portugal, Slovenia and Croatia).

 

4.4 Legal Science Research in Portugal

4.4.1 The Portuguese system for research in Legal Science

Portuguese research in Legal Sciences is performed at a reduced number of Research Centres (13, although this number includes some more Political sciences specialized institutions – see R&D 2007 FCT assessment ). All Research Centres are integrated in Law or Political Sciences Faculties, reflecting the structure of the Portuguese Legal Higher education system. There are several consequences of such an organization; in the first place, most units have only legal sciences researchers – the teaching staff of the host Faculty or School; in the second place, the number of doctorate researchers or teaching staff in Portugal is quite limited (374, including retired staff – see http://www.dgeec.mec.pt/np4/39/?page=0 ); the third consequence is that Legal research is usually focused strictly in Law, most of the time in black letter Law or history of Law, mainly about National law, performed by Legal scholars with no assistance or help from researchers of other scientific areas, and at a distance of the issues arising from the Law in action; the forth consequence is the small level of international integration of research, mostly expressed in advanced formation, delivered by the Faculties and aimed at Portuguese speaking countries nationals; finally, the aseptic Legal research environment thus created induces faculty inbreeding and, as a result of the traditional approach to Legal research common in Portugal, research methodologies and the relevance of contemporary Comparative law research and methods are often undervalued.

4.4.2 National competitive funding and Research units assessment

The Portuguese national science policy is performed by the FCT – the national funding agency for science, technology and innovation , in all scientific domains, under responsibility of the Ministry for Education and Science.

FCT’s mission is to continuously promote the advancement of knowledge in science and technology in Portugal, attain the highest international standards in quality and competitiveness, in all scientific and technological domains, and encourage its dissemination and active role in society and in economic growth.

FCT pursues its mission by funding fellowships, studentships and research contracts for scientists, research projects, internationally competitive research centres and state-of-the-art infrastructures, via competitive calls with international peer-review. FCT ensures Portugal’s participation in international scientific organisations, fosters the participation of the scientific community in international projects and promotes knowledge transfer between R&D centres and industry. Working closely with international organisations, FCT coordinates public policy for the Information and Knowledge Society in Portugal and ensures the development of national scientific computing resources.

FCT is also responsible for the assessment of the national research units in all scientific domains. The research assessment exercise takes place every five years and the last one occurred in 2007. There is an ongoing research assessment exercise and the results are expected to be published by the end of 2014 or early in 2015.

4.4.2.1 Research assessment exercise 2007

According to the Research assessment exercise 2007, the following research units existed:

SCIENTIFIC AREA: LAW

CEDIS – CENTRO DE INVESTIGAÇÃO & DESENVOLVIMENTO SOBRE DIREITO E SOCIEDADE [LAW-LVT-LISBOA-714]

Scientific Coordinator: António Manuel Botelho Hespanha

Principal Contractor: Faculdade de Direito – Universidade Nova de Lisboa

Internet Site: http://www.fd.unl.pt/

Researchers: 33 | Researchers with a doctoral degree: 27 | Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 20

Research groups: 9

Result of the 2007 evaluation: Very Good

CENTRO DE ESTUDOS, JURÍDICOS, ECONÓMICOS E AMBIENTAIS [LAW-LVT-LISBOA-4053]

Scientific Coordinator: Manuel Carlos Lopes Porto

Principal Contractor: Universidade Lusíada de Lisboa

Internet Site http://cejea.ulusiada.pt

Researchers: 90 | Researchers with a doctoral degree: 48 | Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 23

Research groups: 6

Result of the 2007 evaluation: Good

CENTRO DE INVESTIGAÇÃO DA FACULDADE DE DIREITO DA UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA/RESEARCH CENTRE OF THE FACULTY OF LAW [LAW-LVT-LISBOA-4017]

Scientific Coordinator: Paulo Manuel Cunha da Costa Otero

Principal Contractor: Fundação da Universidade de Lisboa

Internet Site : http://www.fd.ul.pt

Researchers: 16 | Researchers with a doctoral degree: 16 | Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 15

Research groups: 4

Result of the 2007 evaluation after review: Fair

CENTRO DE INVESTIGAÇÃO JURÍDICO-ECONÓMICA [LAW-NORTE-PORTO-443]

Scientific Coordinator: Glória Teixeira

Principal Contractor: Faculdade de Direito – Universidade do Porto

Internet Site : http://www.direito.up.pt/cije_web/cije.php

Researchers: 18 | Researchers with a doctoral degree: 11 | Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 11

Research groups: 1

Result of the 2007 evaluation: Very Good

CENTRO DE INVESTIGAÇÃO PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO (CIDES) [LAW-LVT-LISBOA-4088]

Scientific Coordinator: Antonio Jose Fernandes

Principal Contractor: COFAC, Cooperativa de Formação e Animação Cultural, CRL

Internet Site: http://www.ulp.pt

Researchers: 29 | Researchers with a doctoral degree: 12 | Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 9

Research groups: 3

Result of the 2007 evaluation: Poor

DIREITOS HUMANOS-CENTRO DE INVESTIGAÇÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR [LAW-NORTE-BRAGA-4036]

Scientific Coordinator: Pedro Carlos da Silva Bacelar de Vasconcelos

Principal Contractor: Universidade do Minho

Internet Site: http://www.uminho.pt

Researchers: 10 | Researchers with a doctoral degree: 8 | Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 4

Research groups: 3

Result of the 2007 evaluation: Very Good

NÚCLEO DE ESTUDOS DE DIREITO DAS AUTARQUIAS LOCAIS [LAW-NORTE-BRAGA-4076]

Scientific Coordinator: António Cândido Macedo de Oliveira

Principal Contractor: Universidade do Minho

Internet Site: http://www.direito.uminho.pt

Researchers: 3 | Researchers with a doctoral degree: 1 | Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 2

Research groups: 1

Result of the 2007 evaluation: Very Good

 

4.4.2.1 Research assessment exercise 2013

The research assessment exercise 2013 will be ongoing throughout the entire year 2014. The results are expected to be published by the end of 2014 or early in 2015.

Provisional data indicates that the following research units have submitted applications to the Research assessment exercise:

Instituto Jurídico da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Coimbra . (Juridical Institute of the Faculty of Law of the University of Coimbra). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 53

IJP – Portucalense Institute for Legal Research . Universidade Portucalense. Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 44

Centro de Estudos da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Católica (Centre of studies of the Faculty of Law of Universty Catolica). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 42

Centro de Investigação & Desenvolvimento sobre Direito e Sociedade (CEDIS) da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Research and development center about Law and Society of the Faculty of Law of New University of Lisbon). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 36

Centro de Investigação da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Lisboa I (Research center of the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon I). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 28

Direitos Humanos , Escola de Direito da Universidade do Minho (Human Rights of the Law School of the University of Minho). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 24

CEJEA – Centro de Estudos Jurídicos, Económicos e Ambientais da Universidade Lusíada (Centre for Legal, economic and environmental studies of the University Lusiada). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 22

Centro de Investigação sobre Regulação e Supervisão Financeira da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Lisboa (Research center about Regulation and finantial supervisiono f the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 15

Centro de Investigação da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Lisboa II (Research center of the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon II). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 15

Centro de Investigação Jurídico-Económica  da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade do Porto (Legal and economic research center of the Faculty of Law of the University of Porto). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 12

Ratio Legis of the UAL – Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa. Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 12

Teoria e História do Direito da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de Lisboa (Legal theory and history of the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 11

CEDU – Centro de Estudos de Direito da União Europeia da Universidade do Minho (Centre of European Law studies of the School of Law of the University of Minho). Integrated researchers with a doctoral degree: 10

The assessment will be performed by international experts appointed by FCT and under the criteria established in the assessment guide . The results of the first round are expected in July 2014 and the final results in December 2014. This article will be updated accordingly.

5. Portuguese law related publications

5.1 Law Reviews without peer review

The vast majority of Portuguese Law Reviews are published in Portuguese and are not peer reviewed. Following is the list of the major periodical publications in law:

General reviews:

 

Specialised reviews in Portuguese and European constitutional and administrative law:

 

Specialized reviews in tax law:

 

Specialized reviews in criminal law:

  • Revista Portuguesa de Ciência Criminal

 

Specialized reviews in private law:

  • Cadernos de Direito Privado
  • Cadernos do Mercado de Valores Mobiliários
  • Direito das Sociedades em Revista
  • Lex Familiae. Revista Portuguesa de Direito da Família
  • Minerva. Revista de Estudos Laborais
  • Prontuário de Direito do Trabalho
  • Questões Laborais
  • Revista da Banca
  • Revista de Direito das Sociedades
  • Revista de Direito e Economia
  • Revista de Direito e Estudos Sociais
  • Revista do Notariado

 

Other law reviews:

 

5.2 Law Reviews with peer review

Some Portuguese scientific publications have established peer review in the last years:

Portucalense Law Journal , double blind peer review, Open Access, in English and Portuguese.

Revista da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade do Porto , peer review, in Portuguese.

5.3 Major Legal publishers

 

5.4 Treatises and textbooks by subject

I – Introductory Books to (Portuguese) Law

– Amaral, Diogo Freitas do. Manual de Introdução ao Direito . Vol. I. 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Ascensão, José Oliveira. O Direito. Introdução e Teoria Geral . 13th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Bronze, Fernando. Lições de Introdução ao Direito . 2nd ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2010.

– Consciência, Eurico Heitor. Breve Introdução ao Estudo do Direito . 5th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Justo, António Santos. Introdução ao Estudo do Direito . 6th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2012.

– Machado, João Baptista. Introdução ao Direito e ao Discurso Legitimador . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Marques, Mário Reis. Introdução ao Direito . VoI I. 2nd ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Regla, Josep Agiló. Teoria Geral das Fontes do Direito . Lisboa: Escolar Editora, 2013.

– Silva, Germano Marques da. Introdução ao Estudo do Direito . 3rd ed. Lisboa: Universidade Católica Ed., 2009.

-Sousa, Miguel Teixeira de. Introdução ao Direito . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Telles, Inocêncio Galvão. Introdução ao Estudo do Direito . Vol. I. 11th ed. Reprint, Coimbra:

Coimbra Ed., 2010.

– Telles, Inocêncio Galvão. Introdução ao Estudo do Direito . Vol. II. 10th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2010.

 

II – History of (Portuguese) Law

– Caetano, Marcello. História do direito português – (Sécs. XII-XVI) . Lisboa: Verbo, 2000.

– Costa, Mário Júlio de Almeida. História do Direito Português . 5th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Hespanha, António Manuel. Cultura Jurídica Europeia. Síntese de um Milénio . Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

 

III – Public Law

III.1. Constitutional Law

 

– Amaral, Maria Lúcia. A Forma da República – Uma Introdução ao Estudo do Direito Constitucional . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Coimbra Editora, 2012.

– Caetano, Marcello. Manual de Ciência Política e Direito Constitucional . Vol. I.6th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Canotilho, J. J. Gomes. Direito constitucional e Teoria da Constituição . 7th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Canotilho, J. J. Gomes, and Vital Moreira. Constituição da República Portuguesa – Anotada – Artigos 108º a 296º . Vol. II. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2010.

– Gouveia, Jorge Bacelar. Manual de Direito Constitucional . 2 Vols. 5th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Miranda, Jorge. Manual de Direito Constitucional – Tomo I – Preliminares – O Estado e os Sistemas Constitucionais . 10th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2014.

Manual de Direito Constitucional – Tomo III – Estrutura Constitucional do Estado . 6th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2010.

Manual de Direito Constitucional – Tomo V – Actividade Constitucional do Estado . 4th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2011.

Manual de Direito Constitucional – Tomo VI – Inconstitucionalidade e Garantia da Constituição . 4th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2013.

– Miranda, Jorge, and Rui Medeiros. Constituição Portuguesa anotada . Vol. I. 2nd ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2010.

– Morais, Carlos Blanco de. Justiça Constitucional . Vol. II. 2nd ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2011.

– Novais, Jorge Reis. Os Princípios Constitucionais Estruturantes da República Portuguesa . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2011.

– Otero, Paulo. Direito Constitucional Português – Identidade Constitucional . Vol. I. Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

Direito Constitucional Português – Organização do Poder Político . Vol. II. Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Silva, Maria Manuela Magalhães. Constituição da República Portuguesa e Lei Orgânica do Tribunal Constitucional. Anotada . Coimbra: Fundação Bissaya-Barreto, Instituto Superior Bissaya- Barreto, 2006.

– Silva, Maria Manuela Magalhães, and Dora Resende Alves. Noções de Direito Constitucional e Ciência Política . 2nd ed. Lisboa: Editora Rei dos Livros, 2010.

 

III.2. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

– Alexandrino, José de Melo. Direitos Fundamentais – Introdução Geral . 2nd ed. Cascais: Principia, 2011.

– Andrade, José Carlos Viera de. Os direitos fundamentais na Constituição Portuguesa de 1976 . 5th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Mesquita, Maria José. Os Direitos Fundamentais dos Estrangeiros na Ordem Jurídica Portuguesa: uma perspetiva constitucional . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013

– Miranda, Jorge. Manual de Direito Constitucional – Tomo IV – Direitos Fundamentais . 9th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2012.

– Queiroz, Cristina. Direitos Fundamentais (Teoria Geral) . 2nd ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2010.

 

III.3. General Administrative Law

– Almeida, Mário Aroso de. Teoria Geral do Direito Administrativo: Temas Nucleares . Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Amaral, Diogo Freitas do. Curso de Direito Administrativo . Vol. I. 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

Curso de Direito Administrativo . Vol. II. 2nd ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Andrade, José Carlos Viera de. Lições de Direito Administrativo . Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, 2014.

– Caetano, Marcello. Manual de Direito Administrativo . 2 Vols. 10th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

Princípios Fundamentais do Direito Administrativo . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Caupers, João. Introdução ao Direito Administrativo . 10th ed. Lisboa: Âncora Editora, 2009.

– Oliveira, Fernanda Paula, and José Eduardo Dias. Noções Fundamentais de Direito Administrativo . 3rd ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Otero, Paulo. Manual de Direito Administrativo . Vol. I. Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Sousa, António Francisco de. Código do Procedimento Administrativo – Anotado e Comentado . 2nd ed. Lisboa: Quid Juris, 2010.

– Sousa, Marcelo Rebelo de, and André de Matos. Contratos Públicos – Direito Administrativo Geral – Tomo III . 2nd ed. Lisboa: Dom Quixote, 2009.

– Direito Administrativo Geral – Tomo III – Actividade administrativa . 2nd ed. Lisboa: Dom Quixote, 2009.

 

III.4. Administrative Litigation

– Almeida, Mário Aroso de, and Carlos Alberto Cadilha. Comentário ao Código de Processo nos Tribunais Administrativos . 3rd ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Andrade, José Carlos Viera de. A Justiça Administrativa . 13th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Gonçalves, Pedro Costa, Mário Esteves de Oliveira, and João Pacheco Amorim. Código do Procedimento Administrativo – Comentado . 2nd ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Moncada, Luís Cabral de. A Relação Jurídica Administrativa – Para um Novo Paradigma de Comprensão da Actividade, da Organização e do Contencioso Administrativos . Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2009.

– Silva, Vasco Pereira da. O contencioso administrativo no divã da psicanálise. 2nd ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

 

 

 III.5. Public Procurement

– Almeida, João Amaral, and Pedro Fernández Sánchez. Temas de Contratação Pública I . Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2011.

– Estorninho, Maria João. Curso de Direito dos Contratos Públicos. Por Uma Contratação Pública Sustentável . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Ferreira, Isabel Soares, and Sandra Cunha. Manual Prático da Contratação Pública . Lisboa: Áreas, 2010.

– Fonseca, Isabel Celeste. Direito da Contratação Pública – Uma Introdução em Dez Aulas . Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

– Oliveira, Mário Esteves de, and Rodrigo Esteves de Oliveira. Concursos e outros Procedimentos de Contratação Pública . Coimbra: Almedina, 2011.

– Pinto, Lara Sofia. Acordos-Quadro no Direito da Contratação Pública . Coimbra: Almedina, 2011.

– Sousa, Luís Verde de. A Negociação nos Procedimentos de Adjudicação – Uma Análise do Código dos Contratos Públicos . Coimbra: Almedina, 2011.

 

III.6. Land Use Planning and Construction Law

– Abreu, Abílio Vassalo, and Fernanda Paula Oliveira. Instalação de Empreendimentos Turísticos em Propriedade Plural: “Quid Est? “. Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Correia, Fernando Alves. Manual de direito do urbanismo . Vol. I. 4th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

Manual de direito do urbanismo . Vol II. Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

Manual de direito do urbanismo . Vol III. Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Correia, Jorge Alves. Contratos Urbanísticos – Concertação, Contratação e Neocontratualismo no Direito do Urbanismo . Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

– Costa, Salvador da. Código das Expropriações e Estatuto dos Peritos Avaliadores – Anotados e Comentados . Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Lopes, Dulce, and Fernanda Paula Oliveira. Execução Programada de Planos Municipais . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

Regime Jurídico da Reabilitação Urbana . Coimbra: Almedina, 2011

– Oliveira, Fernanda Paula de. Contratos para Planeamento – Da consagração legal de uma prática, às dúvidas práticas do enquadramento legal . Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

Direito do Urbanismo. Do Planeamento à Gestão . Braga: CEJUR, 2010.

Direito do Urbanismo Perguntas de Bolso, Repostas de Algibeira . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

Direito do Urbanismo e do Ordenamento do Território . 2 Vols. Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

Loteamentos Urbanos e Dinâmica das Normas de Planeamento . Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

Novas Tendências do Direito do Urbanismo – De um Urbanismo de Expansão e de Segregação a um Urbanismo de Contenção, de Reabilitação Urbana e de Coesão Social . 2nd ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

Nulidades Urbanísticas – Casos e Coisas . Coimbra: Almedina, 2011.

O Urbanismo, O Ordenamento do Território e os Tribunais . Coimbra: Almedina, 2010

Portugal: Território e Ordenamento . Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

Regime Jurídico dos Instrumentos de Gestão Territorial . Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

 

III.7. Environmental Law

– Archer, António Barreto. Direito do Ambiente e Responsabilidade Civil . Coimbra: Almedina, 2009

 

 III.8. Market regulation

– Azevedo, Maria Eduarda. Temas de Direito da Economia . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Moncada, Luís Cabral de. Direito económico . 6th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2012.

Manual Elementar de Direito Público da Economia e da Regulação . Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Santos, António Carlos dos, Maria Manuel Marques, and Maria Eduarda Gonçalves. Direito Económico . 6th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

 

 III.9. Public Finance law

– Catarino, João Ricardo. Finanças Públicas e Direito Financeiro . Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Franco, António de Sousa. Finanças Públicas e Direito Financeiro . 2 Vols. 4th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Martins, Maria d’Oliveira. Lições de Finanças Públicas e Direito Financeiro .3rd ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Tavares, José F. F.. Estudos de Administração e Finanças Públicas . 2nd ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

 

III.10. Competition Law

– Cunha, Carolina, Miguel Gorjão-Henriques, José Luís da Cruz Vilaça, Gonçalo Anastácio, and Manuel Lopes Porto. Lei da Concorrência – Comentário Conimbricense . With contributions by José Caramelo Gomes. Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Gomes, José Caramelo. Lições de Direito da Concorrência . Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Monteiro, Luís Pinto. A Recusa em Licenciar Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual no Direito da Concorrência . Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Morais Luís D. S.. Direito da Concorrência – Perspectivas do seu Ensino . Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

 

III.11. Tax Law

– Campos, Diogo Leite de, and Susana Soutelinho. Direito do Procedimento Tributário . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Leitão, Hélder Martins. Código de Procedimento e de Processo Tributário – Anotado e Comentado . 3rd ed. Porto: Almeida & Leitão, 2010.

– Nabais, José Casalta. Direito fiscal . 7th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

Introdução ao Direito Fiscal das Empresas . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Oliveira, Joana Tavares de, and Rui Valente. Código Contributivo – Anotado . Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2011.

– Pires, Manuel, and Rita Calçada Pires. Direito Fiscal . 5th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Teixeira, Glória. Manual de Direito Fiscal . 2th ed. Reprinted, Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Vasques, Sérgio. Manual de Direito Fiscal . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

 

III.12. Criminal Law

– Andrade, Manuel da Costa. «Bruscamente no Verão Passado» a Reforma do Código de Processo Penal – Observações críticas sobre uma Lei que podia e devia ter sido diferente . Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2009

– Antunes, Maria João, and Inês Horta Pinto. Execução das Penas e Medidas Privativas da Liberdade – Código Anotado, Regulamento Geral e Legislação Complementar . 2nd Ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2013.

– Carvalho, Américo Taipa de. Direito Penal – Parte Geral – Questões fundamentais / Teoria geral do crime . 2nd ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2011

Temas Jurídico-Penais . Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2010.

– Dias, Jorge de Figueiredo. Acordos Sobre a Sentença Em Processo Penal – O “Fim” do Estado de Direito ou um Novo “Princípio”? . Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2011.

Direito Penal – Parte Geral – Tomo I – Questões Fundamentais; A Doutrina Geral do Crime . 2nd ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2012.

Direito Penal Português – Parte Geral II – As Consequências Jurídicas do Crime . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2009.

O Problema da Consciência da Ilicitude em Direito Penal . 6th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2009.

– Garcia, M. Miguez, and J. M. Castela Rio. Código Penal Anotado – Parte geral e especial – Com Notas e Comentários . Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Melo, Helena Pereira de,  and Teresa Pizarro Beleza. A Mediação Penal em Portugal . Coimbra: Almedina, 2012.

– Palma, Maria Fernanda. Direito Constitucional Penal . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2011.

– Pinto, Frederico da Costa, Jorge de Figueiredo Dias, and Manuel da Costa Andrade. Supervisão, Direito ao Silêncio e Legalidade da Prova . Coimbra: Almedina, 2009

– Silva, Germano Marques da. Direito Penal Português – Parte Geral I – Introdução e Teoria da Lei Penal- Noções gerais, elementos do processo penal . Vol. II. 3rd ed. Lisboa: Verbo, 2010.

Direito Penal Português – Teoria do crime . Lisboa: Universidade Católica Ed., 2012

Direito Penal Tributário. Sobre as Responsabilidades das Sociedades e dos seus Administradores Conexas com o Crime Tributário . Lisboa: Universidade Católica Ed., 2009

Responsabilidade Penal das Sociedades e dos seus Administradores e Representantes . Lisboa: Verbo, 2009.

 

III.13. Criminal Procedure

– Carvalho, Paula Marques. Manual Prático de Processo Penal . 8th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Gonçalves, Manuel Lopes Maia. Código de Processo Penal – Anotado e Legislação Complementar . 17th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

– Mendes, Paulo de Sousa. Lições de Direito Processual Penal . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014

– Silva, Germano Marques da. Curso de Processo Penal I – Noções gerais, Elementos do Processo Penal . 6th ed. Lisboa: Verbo, 2010.

Curso de Processo Penal II . 5th ed. Lisboa: Verbo, 2011.

Direito Processual Penal Português – Noções Gerais – Sujeitos Processuais e Objecto . Lisboa: Universidade Católica Ed., 2013.

 

III.14. Civil Procedure

– Amaral, Jorge Pais de. Direito Processual Civil . 11th ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Câmara, Carla, Carlos Castelo Branco, João Correia, and Sérgio Castanheira. Regime Jurídico do Processo de Inventário – Anotado . 2nd ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Correia, João, Paulo Pimenta, and Sérgio Castanheira. Introdução ao Estudo e à Aplicação do Código de Processo Civil de 2013 . 1st. ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Cunha, António Júlio. Direito Processual Civil Declarativo – à luz do Novo Código de Processo Civil . Lisboa: Quid Juris, 2013.

– Ferreirinha, Fernando Neto. Processo de Inventário . Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Freitas, José Lebre de. A Acção Declarativa Comum – À Luz do Código Revisto . 3rd ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2013.

– A Acção Executiva -A Luz do Código de Processo Civil de 2013 . 6th ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2014.

A Confissão no Direito Probatório – Um Estudo de Direito Positivo . 2nd ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2013

A Falsidade no Direito Probatório . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013

Introdução ao Processo Civil – Conceito e Princípios Gerais . 3rd ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2013.

Introdução ao Processo Civil – Conceito e Princípios Gerais . 3rd ed. Coimbra: Coimbra Ed., 2013.

– Ferreira, Fernando Amâncio. Manual dos Recursos em Processo Civil . 9th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

– Furtado, Jorge Pinto. Recursos em Processo Civil (de acordo com o CPC de 2013) . Lisboa: Quid Juris, 2013.

– Geraldes, António Abrantes. Recursos no Novo Código de Processo Civil . 2nd ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Loureiro, Ana Luísa, and Paulo Ramos de Faria. Primeiras Notas ao Novo Código de Processo Civil . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Machado, António Montalvão, and Paulo Pimenta. O Novo Processo Civil . 12th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2010.

– Martins, António. Código de Processo Civil – Comentários e Anotações Práticas . 3rd ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Mesquita, Duarte Romeira de, and Wanda Ferraz de Brito. Código de Processo Civil – Anotado . 18th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2009.

– Negrão, Fernando, Nélia Monte Cid, and Paulo Rios de Oliveira. O Novo Código de Processo Civil Comentado. Lisboa: Quid Juris, 2013.

– Neto, Abílio. Novo Código de Processo Civil – Anotado . 2nd ed. Lisboa: Ediforum, 2014.

Processo de Inventário Lei n.º 23/2013 – Anotado . 2nd ed. Lisboa: Ediforum, 2013.

– Rocha, Francisco Costeira da, and Lurdes Mesquita. A Ação Executiva no Novo Código de Processo Civil . Porto: Vida Económica, 2013.

– Rodrigues. Fernando Pereira. O Novo Processo Civil – Os Princípios Estruturantes . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Sá, Domingos Silva Carvalho. Do Inventário . 7th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

– Torres, Pedro Pinheiro. Guia para o Novo Código de Processo Civil . 1st ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

 

III.15. International Public Law

– Miranda, Jorge. Curso de Direito Internacional Público . 5th ed. Cascais: Principia, 2012.

– Gouveia, Jorge Bacelar. Direito Internacional da Segurança . Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

Manual de Direito Internacional Público – Uma Perspetiva de Língua Portuguesa . 4th ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

 

III.16. Comparative Law

– Almeida, Carlos Ferreira de, and Jorge Morais Carvalho . Introdução ao Direito Comparado . 3rd ed. Reprint, Coimbra: Almedina, 2013.

– Gomes, José Caramelo, and Ângela Maria Lima. LEX PETROLEA – Um estudo de Direito comparado nos países de língua oficial portuguesa . Lisboa: Petrony, 2013.

– Vicente, Dário Moura. Direito Comparado . Vol. I. 3rd ed. Coimbra: Almedina, 2014.

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